ÉTUDE INTERNATIONALE SUR LES DISPOSITIFS DE PRÉVENTION DE LA RADICALISATION ET DE L'EXTRÉMISME VIOLENTS DANS L'ESPACE FRANCOPHONE/
In collaboration with the OIF and stakeholders (Fédération Wallonie–Bruxelles, French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Government of Quebec), FrancoPREV is carrying out a study on the mechanisms for preventing violent radicalization and extremism that can lead to terrorism in the French-speaking area. The countries targeted by the research are: in Europe, Belgium; in North America, Canada; in North Africa, Tunisia and Morocco; in Central and West Africa, Cameroon, Mauritania, Niger and Togo. This study, whose coordination has been entrusted to the UNESCO-PREV Chair, will be carried out in close partnership with the Institute for Security Studies (ISS), the Resource and Support Centre (CRÉA) of the Network for Dealing with Extremism and Violent Radicalism, the African Centre for International Diplomatic, Economic and Strategic Studies (CEIDES) and the Applied Social Sciences Forum (ASSF).
GOALS AND METHODOLOGY
The general aims of the international study on the mechanisms for preventing violent radicalization and extremism in the French-speaking countries are to conduct an inventory of the current situation and the challenges of prevention mechanisms in different French-speaking countries and to identify promising practices and lessons learned. Furthermore, the study will present conclusions and courses of action likely to contribute to the establishment of definitive and shared recommendations. The study will be structured around a review of scientific literature, grey literature and interviews with experts, members of government and civil society reflecting the diversity of the Francophone space.
A compilation of good practices and lessons learned in the analyzed countries will be established. Courses of action will be submitted to the experts of the FrancoPREV Network for discussion with a focus on formulating recommendations.
Today, experts and public authorities are unanimous in emphasize the importance of preventing violent radicalization and extremism. Based on this observation fueled by reports, declarations, and resolutions from various forums, including the United Nations General Assembly, UNESCO's Executive Committee, the International Organization of La Francophonie's (OIF) High-Level Conference on Countering Terrorism and Preventing Violent Radicalization, as well as the XVI Francophonie Summit, the Francophone Network for the Prevention of Violent Radicalization and Extremism that Could Lead to Terrorism (FrancoPREV) was launched in 2018. In collaboration with the OIF and stakeholders, it commissioned an international study on arrangements for preventing violent radicalization and extremism in the Francophone space. This report highlights the highlights of this international study based on documentary and field research conducted by the centers in the following countries: Belgium, Cameroon, Canada, Morocco, Niger, Togo, and Tunisia.
This status report of the prevention of radicalization and violent extremism in French-speaking Belgium and in the Brussels region aims to be descriptive and synthetic. It presents the current form that the prevention of radicalization has taken, the tensions that continue to cross it, but also the good practices that have been implemented from the point of view of the actors in the field. This overhanging cartography attempts to identify the coherence of what has been achieved in French-speaking Belgium in this area.
This study required the use of documentary resources to review the literature and fieldwork to collect empirical data. The study identified state and non-state mechanisms for preventing radicalization and violent extremism according to the levels of prevention in which they operate. The aim was to ensure that the missions, programs, projects and activities implemented by public, private and international entities were in line with the conceptual framework and the objectives pursued in terms of primary, secondary and tertiary prevention.
Although there have not been many terrorist attacks in Canada, this growing concern has resulted in a shift in public policy from an exclusive focus on homeland security and counter-terrorism to a strategy that encourages the progressive incorporation of psychosocial components of prevention and the promotion of programs that focus on a public health approach. This shift has allowed for the implementation of primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention programs that target both virtual and physical space, as well as the development of multi-sectoral collaboration models. It has also facilitated an increase in the institutionalization of public policies.
This report contributes to the assessment of the Moroccan national strategy for the prevention of radicalization and violent extremism. It also consists in putting forward lines of action and reflections on the prevention mechanisms and their implementation system. This work is based on institutional initiatives and puts into perspective the main tools, programs and intervention approaches in the fields of prevention of violent extremism. This report focuses on the study of institutional programs implemented since 2004. The analysis presents the different tools and programs deployed by the Kingdom of Morocco as part of its prevention strategy and the institutional intervention approaches in this area.
Niger has initiated a process of developing a national strategy in response to various national, regional and international impulses. This report is organized into nine parts. The first part presents Niger's national strategy for the prevention of radicalization and violent extremism. The second section analyzes non-state prevention programs implemented in Niger. The third section examines the involvement of youth and women in the programs. The fourth and fifth sections describe the role of digital technology and the rule of law in prevention efforts. The sixth section discusses the evaluation of prevention programs against violent radicalization and extremism in Niger. The last three parts identify the specific issues and challenges faced by prevention actors, the findings and lessons learned, and possible courses of action.
The recurrence of violent incidents in Burkina, not far from Togo's border areas, and awareness of the activities of extremist groups in Benin, convinced Togolese authorities to take measures to contain the threat outside the country's borders. The military and security measures were then expanded to include the development of a set of laws on decentralization and internal security to adapt the legal framework to emerging threats, including violent extremism. The establishment of the Interministerial Committee for the Prevention and Fight against Violent Extremism (CIPLEV) in 2019 has thus completed the Togolese system by enriching it with an essentially civilian dimension.
Conducted from the perspective of developing multi-actor and multi-actor prevention, this study raises a series of questions related to the objectives of the preventive component of the national strategy to combat violent extremism. It takes stock of the "gaps" and dysfunctions between the state's resilience strategy (as a form of sustainable prevention) and its action and strategic planning in a context of cooperation with CSOs. From a collaborative perspective, this study describes the different components of prevention: primary, secondary, and tertiary. Finally, the role of women and youth in these arrangements is given special attention, as well as the state's collaboration with local organizations and international agencies.